Reperfusion injury of ischemic tissue represents an acute inflammatory response that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of injury is not fully elucidated, but recent studies indicate an important role for natural antibody and the classical pathway of complement. To test the hypothesis that injury is initiated by specific IgM, we have screened a panel of IgM-producing hybridomas prepared from peritoneal cells enriched in B-1 cells. One clone, CM22, was identified that could restore pathogenic injury in RAG-1(-/-) mice in an intestinal model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In situ activation of the classical pathway of complement was evident by deposition of IgM, complement C4, and C3 in damaged tissue after passive transfer of CM22 IgM. Sequence analysis of CM22 Ig heavy and light chains showed germ-line configurations with high homology to a V(H) sequence from the B-1 repertoire and a V(K) of a known polyreactive natural IgM. These data provide definitive evidence that I/R injury can be initiated by clonally specific natural IgM that activates the classical pathway of complement. This finding opens an avenue for identification of I/R-specific self-antigen(s) and early prevention of injury.
MLL5 is a mammalian trithorax group (trx-G) gene identified within chromosome band 7q22, a frequently deleted element found in cytogenetic aberrations of acute myeloid malignancies. MLL5 cDNA was linked with the FLAG and V5 tags at the N and C terminus, respectively, and transfected into 293T cells. Immunofluoresence staining of the expressed tagged MLL5 protein showed localization to the nucleus and exclusion from nucleoli, and no surface staining was detected. Both ectopically introduced and endogenous MLL5 protein displayed a speckled nuclear distribution. By using a series of MLL5-truncated mutants fused with enhanced GFP, a domain (residues 945-1,156) required for foci accumulation was identified, and regions containing functional nuclear localization signals were mapped. Ectopic overexpression of GFP-MLL5 induced cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase. This inhibition of cell cycle progression was indicated by delayed progression into nocodazole-induced mitotic arrest and was confirmed by a lack of BrdUrd incorporation. These findings suggest that MLL5 forms intranuclear protein complexes that may play an important role in chromatin remodeling and cellular growth suppression.
Inhibitory killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) at the surface of natural killer (NK) cells induced clustering of HLA-C at the contacting surface of target cells. In this manner, inhibitory immune synapses were formed as human NK cells surveyed target cells. At target/NK cell synapses, HLA-C/KIR distributed into rings around central patches of intercellular adhesion molecule-1/lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, the opposite orientation to mature murine T cell-activating synapses. This organization of protein was stable for at least 20 min. Cells could support multiple synapses simultaneously, and clusters of HLA-C moved as NK cells crawled over target cells. Clustering required a divalent metal cation, explaining how metal chelators inhibit KIR function. Surprisingly, however, formation of inhibitory synapses was unaffected by ATP depletion and the cytoskeletal inhibitors, colchicine and cytochalsins B and D. Clearly, supramolecular organization within plasma membranes is critical for NK cell immunosurveillance.
Class I MHC protein primarily presents endogenous antigen but also may present exogenous antigen. Here, we investigated the intracellular pathway of spontaneously internalized class I MHC protein by confocal microscopy. beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m), labeled with a single fluorophore, was exchanged at the surface of B cell transfectants to specifically mark cell surface and endocytosed class I MHC protein. Intracellular beta(2)m colocalized with fluorophore-conjugated transferrin, implying that class I MHC protein endocytosed into early endosomes. These endosomes containing fluorescent beta(2)m were found close to or within the Golgi apparatus, marked by fluorescent ceramide. Even after 24 hr of incubation, very little fluorescent beta(2)m was found in intracellular organelles stained by DiOC(6), marking the endoplasmic reticulum, or fluorophore-conjugated low density lipoprotein, marking late endosomes and lysosomes. Fluorophore-conjugated superantigens (staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B), presumed to enter cells bound to class II MHC protein, also were found to endocytose into beta(2)m-containing early endosomes. Staining with mAb and use of transfectants expressing MHC protein attached to green fluorescent protein confirmed the presence of intracellular compartments rich in both class I and II MHC protein and demonstrated that class I and II MHC protein also colocalize in discrete microdomains at the cell surface. These cell surface microdomains also contained transferrin receptor and often were juxtaposed to cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. Thus, class I and II MHC protein meet in microdomains of the plasma membrane and endocytose into early endosomes, where both may acquire and present exogenous antigen.
HLA-G is a class Ib (non-classical) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein expressed at the maternal-fetal interface that inhibits natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis in an allotype-independent manner. Here we report that the spontaneous endocytosis of HLA-G is severely reduced because of its short cytoplasmic tail. Class I (classical) MHC proteins on the surface of B cell transfectants detected by primary and secondary antibodies underwent endocytosis at a moderate rate, whereas HLA-G, chimeric proteins consisting of the extracellular domains of HLA-C with the C-terminal sequence of HLA-G, or glycophosphatidylinositol-tailed HLA-C proteins, were not efficiently internalized. In addition, a mutant of beta 2-microglobulin (Ser88Cys) that could be specifically labeled with Texas red (or other fluorescent probes) and exchanged into class I or class Ib MHC proteins was employed to study spontaneous internalization of MHC proteins by a non-perturbative method independent of an antibody ligand. These data are discussed in terms of both the role of HLA-G expressed on the fetal trophoblast and the function of the cytoplasmic tail in class I MHC proteins.
The purification of NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from ox heart mitochondria is described. The molecular weight from gel filtration, sedimentation equilibrium and gel electrophoresis is 90000+/-4000, and there are two subunits in the molecule each of which binds NADPH with enhancement of the coenzyme fluorescence. The amino-acid composition is reported, and the absorption coefficient, A1/280%, estimated from dry weight measurements is 11.8 cm-1.
1. When injected into irradiated chickens, haemopoietic stem cells give rise to well-defined erythrocytic colonies in the host marrow. Such stem cells (CFU-M = Colony Forming Unit in Marrow) have been found in different tissue of the chicke embryo (yolk sac, blood, marrow). Analysis of the properties of CFU-M reveals that they represent two classes of stem cells: pluripotent stem cells mainly in adult marrow and erythrocytic-committed stem cells present in yolk sac. 2. Yolk sac contains the main pool of CFU-M during the major part of embryonic life. In the blood of 6-day-old embryo, there are three or four times more CFU-Ms than in the yolk sac; they are no longer detected in the blood after the 16th day of incubation. During development of the marrow, stem cells are actively differentiating and their total number remains the same from 16 days to hatching.
Rabbit liver microsomal preparations fortified with 0.1 mM NADPH effectively promote hydroxylation of [3beta-3H]- or [24-14C]allochenodeoxycholic acid or [5alpha,6alpha-3H2]5alpha-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha-diol to their respective 12alpha-hydroxyl derivatives in yields of about 25 or 65% in 60 min. Minor amounts of other products are formed from the diol. The requirements for activity of rabbit liver microsomal 12alpha-hydroxylase resemble those of rat liver microsomes. Of a number of enzyme inhibitors studied only p-chloromercuribenzoate demonstrated a marked ability to inhibit the reaction with either tritiated substrate. There was no difference in the quantity of product produced from the tritiated acid or the 14C-labeled acid. No clear sex difference was found in activity of the enzyme, nor was an appreciable difference noted in activity of the enzyme between mature and immature animals.
The approach to the problem of oncogenesis of tumorigenic viruses is compared and analyzed from the position of the Altshtein-Vogt hypothesis and from that of the general theory of oncogenesis advanced by the present author. In contrast to the hypothesis of Altshtein-Vogt dealing mainly with the problem of oncogene origin, the general theory of oncogenesis not only defines concretely the origin of the oncogene and the essence of its product, but also makes it possible to understand why, when and how integration of the oncogene with the genome of the cell leads to the transformation of the cell into a benign cell and when into a malignant tumour cell. An analysis of the essence of the "oncogene position effect" from this standpoint shows that an integration, similar in its mechanism but differing in polarity, of the genome of other viruses with the cell genome should lead to the formation of a corresponding antiviral stable (life-long) immunity or also to the emergence of pseudoautoimmune disease of the type caused by "slow" viruses.