Visceral hypersensitivity of the lower gastrointestinal tract, defined as an increased response to colorectal disten- sion, frequently prompts episodes of debilitating abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although the pathophysiology of IBS is not yet fully elucidated, it is well known that stress is a major risk factor for development and acts as a trigger of pain sensation. Stress modulates both immune responses as well as the gut microbiota and vice versa. Additionally, either microbes themselves or through involvement of the immune system, activate or sensitize afferent nociceptors. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the influence of stress along the gut-brain-microbiota axis and exemplify relevant neuroimmune cross talk mecha- nisms in visceral hypersensitivity, working toward understanding how gut micro- biota-neuroimmune cross talk contributes to visceral pain sensation in IBS patients.