Review Papers

Dylan V Neel, Himanish Basu, Georgia Gunner, and Isaac M Chiu. 5/7/2022. “Catching a killer: Mechanisms of programmed cell death and immune activation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.” Immunol Rev.Abstract
In the central nervous system (CNS), execution of programmed cell death (PCD) is crucial for proper neurodevelopment. However, aberrant activation of these pathways in adult CNS leads to neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). How a cell dies is critical, as it can drive local immune activation and tissue damage. Classical apoptosis engages several mechanisms to evoke "immunologically silent" responses, whereas other forms of programmed death such as pyroptosis, necroptosis, and ferroptosis release molecules that can potentiate immune responses and inflammation. In ALS, a fatal neuromuscular disorder marked by progressive death of lower and upper motor neurons, several cell types in the CNS express machinery for multiple PCD pathways. The specific cell types engaging PCD, and ultimate mechanisms by which neuronal death occurs in ALS are not well defined. Here, we provide an overview of different PCD pathways implicated in ALS. We also examine immune activation in ALS and differentiate apoptosis from necrotic mechanisms based on downstream immunological consequences. Lastly, we highlight therapeutic strategies that target cell death pathways in the treatment of neurodegeneration and inflammation in ALS.
Liwen Deng and Isaac M Chiu. 4/20/2022. “A neuropeptide regulates immunity across species.” Neuron, 110, 8, Pp. 1275-1277.Abstract
Communication between the nervous system and immune system is important for regulating immunity in health and disease. Yu et al. (2022) show that neuropeptide Y and its homolog NPF serve as a "language" to facilitate crosstalk between these two systems across species, enabling neurons to downregulate harmful immune responses.
Antonia Wallrapp, Daping Yang, and Isaac M Chiu. 4/2022. “Enteric glial cells mediate gut immunity and repair.” Trends Neurosci, 45, 4, Pp. 251-253.Abstract
In the gut, coordinated cell interactions regulate tissue repair and immunity. How enteric glial cells (EGCs) mediate these processes remained elusive. In a recent paper, Progatzky et al. demonstrate that EGCs interact with immune and mesothelial cells under homeostasis and helminth infection, revealing an indispensable role of an interferon-γ (IFNγ)-EGC-CXCL10 axis in tissue repair.
Swalpa Udit, Kimbria Blake, and Isaac M Chiu. 3/2022. “Somatosensory and autonomic neuronal regulation of the immune response.” Nat Rev Neurosci, 23, 3, Pp. 157-171.Abstract
Bidirectional communication between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the immune system is a crucial part of an effective but balanced mammalian response to invading pathogens, tissue damage and inflammatory stimuli. Here, we review how somatosensory and autonomic neurons regulate immune cellular responses at barrier tissues and in peripheral organs. Immune cells express receptors for neuronal mediators, including neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, allowing neurons to influence their function in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Distinct subsets of peripheral sensory, sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric neurons are able to signal to innate and adaptive immune cells to modulate their cellular functions. In this Review, we highlight recent studies defining the molecular mechanisms by which neuroimmune signalling mediates tissue homeostasis and pathology. Understanding the neural circuitry that regulates immune responses can offer novel targets for the treatment of a wide array of diseases.
Liwen Deng and Isaac M Chiu. 4/1/2021. “Microbes and pain.” PLoS Pathog, 17, 4, Pp. e1009398. PDF
Amanda Jacobson, Daping Yang, Madeleine Vella, and Isaac M Chiu. 2/4/2021. “The intestinal neuro-immune axis: crosstalk between neurons, immune cells, and microbes.” Mucosal Immunol.Abstract
The gastrointestinal tract is densely innervated by a complex network of neurons that coordinate critical physiological functions. Here, we summarize recent studies investigating the crosstalk between gut-innervating neurons, resident immune cells, and epithelial cells at homeostasis and during infection, food allergy, and inflammatory bowel disease. We introduce the neuroanatomy of the gastrointestinal tract, detailing gut-extrinsic neuron populations from the spinal cord and brain stem, and neurons of the intrinsic enteric nervous system. We highlight the roles these neurons play in regulating the functions of innate immune cells, adaptive immune cells, and intestinal epithelial cells. We discuss the consequences of such signaling for mucosal immunity. Finally, we discuss how the intestinal microbiota is integrated into the neuro-immune axis by tuning neuronal and immune interactions. Understanding the molecular events governing the intestinal neuro-immune signaling axes will enhance our knowledge of physiology and may provide novel therapeutic targets to treat inflammatory diseases.
Valentina N Lagomarsino, Aleksandar D Kostic, and Isaac M Chiu. 12/11/2020. “Mechanisms of microbial–neuronal interactions in pain and nociception.” Neurobiol Pain, 9, Pp. 100056-100056.Abstract
Nociceptor sensory neurons innervate barrier tissues that are constantly exposed to microbial stimuli. During infection, pathogenic microorganisms can breach barrier surfaces and produce pain by directly activating nociceptors. Microorganisms that live in symbiotic relationships with their hosts, commensals and mutualists, have also been associated with pain, but the molecular mechanisms of how symbionts act on nociceptor neurons to modulate pain remain largely unknown. In this review, we will discuss the known molecular mechanisms of how microbes directly interact with sensory afferent neurons affecting nociception in the gut, skin and lungs. We will touch on how bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens signal to the host to inflict or suppress pain. We will also discuss recent studies examining how gut symbionts affect pain. Specifically, we will discuss how gut symbionts may interact with sensory afferent neurons either directly, through secretion of metabolites or neurotransmitters, or indirectly,through first signaling to epithelial cells or immune cells, to regulate visceral, neuropathic and inflammatory pain. While this area of research is still in its infancy, more mechanistic studies to examine microbial-sensory neuron crosstalk in nociception may allow us to develop new therapies for the treatment of acute and chronic pain.
Coco Chu, David Artis, and Isaac M Chiu. 3/17/2020. “Neuro-immune Interactions in the Tissues.” Immunity, 52, 3, Pp. 464-474.Abstract
The ability of the nervous system to sense environmental stimuli and to relay these signals to immune cells via neurotransmitters and neuropeptides is indispensable for effective immunity and tissue homeostasis. Depending on the tissue microenvironment and distinct drivers of a certain immune response, the same neuronal populations and neuro-mediators can exert opposing effects, promoting or inhibiting tissue immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the complex interactions between the immune and the nervous systems in different tissues and contexts. We outline current gaps in knowledge and argue for the importance of considering infectious and inflammatory disease within a conceptual framework that integrates neuro-immune circuits both local and systemic, so as to better understand effective immunity to develop improved approaches to treat inflammation and disease.
Kimbria J Blake, Xin Ru Jiang, and Isaac M Chiu. 8/2019. “Neuronal Regulation of Immunity in the Skin and Lungs.” Trends Neurosci, 42, 8, Pp. 537-551.Abstract
The nervous and immune systems are classically studied as two separate entities. However, their interactions are crucial for maintaining barrier functions at tissues constantly exposed to the external environment. We focus here on the role of neuronal signaling in regulating the immune system at two major barriers: the skin and respiratory tract. Barrier tissues are heavily innervated by sensory and autonomic nerves, and are densely populated by resident immune cells, allowing rapid, coordinated responses to noxious stimuli, as well as to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Neural release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides allows fast communication with immune cells and their recruitment. In addition to maintaining homeostasis and fighting infections, neuroimmune interactions are also implicated in several chronic inflammatory conditions such as atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma.
Pankaj Baral, Swalpa Udit, and Isaac M Chiu. 7/2019. “Pain and immunity: implications for host defence.” Nat Rev Immunol, 19, 7, Pp. 433-447.Abstract
Pain is a hallmark of tissue injury, inflammatory diseases, pathogen invasion and neuropathy. It is mediated by nociceptor sensory neurons that innervate the skin, joints, bones, muscles and mucosal tissues and protects organisms from noxious stimuli. Nociceptors are sensitized by inflammatory mediators produced by the immune system, including cytokines, lipid mediators and growth factors, and can also directly detect pathogens and their secreted products to produce pain during infection. Upon activation, nociceptors release neuropeptides from their terminals that potently shape the function of innate and adaptive immune cells. For some pathogens, neuron-immune interactions enhance host protection from infection, but for other pathogens, neuron-immune signalling pathways can be exploited to facilitate pathogen survival. Here, we discuss the role of nociceptor interactions with the immune system in pain and infection and how understanding these pathways could produce new approaches to treat infectious diseases and chronic pain.
Sangeeta S Chavan, Pingchuan Ma, and Isaac M Chiu. 3/2018. “Neuro-immune interactions in inflammation and host defense: Implications for transplantation.” Am J Transplant, 18, 3, Pp. 556-563.Abstract
Sensory and autonomic neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) play a critical role in regulating the immune system during tissue inflammation and host defense. Recent studies have identified the molecular mechanisms underlying the bidirectional communication between the nervous system and the immune system. Here, we highlight the studies that demonstrate the importance of the neuro-immune interactions in health and disease. Nociceptor sensory neurons detect immune mediators to produce pain, and release neuropeptides that act on the immune system to regulate inflammation. In parallel, neural reflex circuits including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of inflammatory responses and cytokine production. In transplantation, neuro-immune communication could significantly impact the processes of host-pathogen defense, organ rejection, and wound healing. Emerging approaches to target the PNS such as bioelectronics could be useful in improving the outcome of transplantation. Therefore, understanding how the nervous system shapes the immune response could have important therapeutic ramifications for transplantation medicine.
Isaac M Chiu. 2/2018. “Infection, Pain, and Itch.” Neurosci Bull, 34, 1, Pp. 109-119.Abstract
Pain and itch are unpleasant sensations that often accompany infections caused by viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal pathogens. Recent studies show that sensory neurons are able to directly detect pathogens to mediate pain and itch. Nociceptor and pruriceptor neurons respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including Toll-like receptor ligands, N-formyl peptides, and bacterial toxins. Other pathogens are able to silence neuronal activity to produce analgesia during infection. Pain and itch could lead to neuronal modulation of the immune system or behavioral avoidance of future pathogen exposure. Conversely, pathogens could modulate neuronal signaling to potentiate their pathogenesis and facilitate their spread to other hosts. Defining how pathogens modulate pain and itch has critical implications for sensory neurobiology and our understanding of host-microbe interactions.
Nicole Y Lai, Kimbria J Blake, and Isaac M Chiu. 7/2017. “Sensory neuron regulation of gastrointestinal inflammation and bacterial host defence.” J Intern Med, 282, 1, Pp. 5-23.Abstract
Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage. Emerging evidence shows that sensory neurons participate in host-microbe interactions. Sensory neurons are able to detect pathogenic and commensal bacteria through specific metabolites, cell-wall components, and toxins. Here, we review recent work on the mechanisms of bacterial detection by distinct subtypes of gut-innervating sensory neurons. Upon activation, sensory neurons communicate to the immune system to modulate tissue inflammation through antidromic signalling and efferent neural circuits. We discuss how this neuro-immune regulation is orchestrated through transient receptor potential ion channels and sensory neuropeptides including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Recent studies also highlight a role for sensory neurons in regulating host defence against enteric bacterial pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter rodentium and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Understanding how sensory neurons respond to gastrointestinal flora and communicate with immune cells to regulate host defence enhances our knowledge of host physiology and may form the basis for new approaches to treat gastrointestinal diseases.
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, and Isaac M Chiu. 6/1/2017. “Neuro-immune interactions in allergic diseases: novel targets for therapeutics.” Int Immunol, 29, 6, Pp. 247-261.Abstract
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation. Several mechanisms of cross-talk between the two systems have been uncovered, with potential anatomical specificity. Immune cells release inflammatory mediators including histamine, cytokines or neurotrophins that directly activate sensory neurons to mediate itch in the skin, cough/sneezing and bronchoconstriction in the respiratory tract and motility in the GI tract. Upon activation, these peripheral neurons release neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that directly act on immune cells to modulate their function. Somatosensory and visceral afferent neurons release neuropeptides including calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide, which can act on type 2 immune cells to drive allergic inflammation. Autonomic neurons release neurotransmitters including acetylcholine and noradrenaline that signal to both innate and adaptive immune cells. Neuro-immune signaling may play a central role in the physiopathology of allergic diseases including atopic dermatitis, asthma and food allergies. Therefore, getting a better understanding of these cellular and molecular neuro-immune interactions could lead to novel therapeutic approaches to treat allergic diseases.
Nicole J Yang and Isaac M Chiu. 3/10/2017. “Bacterial Signaling to the Nervous System through Toxins and Metabolites.” J Mol Biol, 429, 5, Pp. 587-605.Abstract
Mammalian hosts interface intimately with commensal and pathogenic bacteria. It is increasingly clear that molecular interactions between the nervous system and microbes contribute to health and disease. Both commensal and pathogenic bacteria are capable of producing molecules that act on neurons and affect essential aspects of host physiology. Here we highlight several classes of physiologically important molecular interactions that occur between bacteria and the nervous system. First, clostridial neurotoxins block neurotransmission to or from neurons by targeting the SNARE complex, causing the characteristic paralyses of botulism and tetanus during bacterial infection. Second, peripheral sensory neurons-olfactory chemosensory neurons and nociceptor sensory neurons-detect bacterial toxins, formyl peptides, and lipopolysaccharides through distinct molecular mechanisms to elicit smell and pain. Bacteria also damage the central nervous system through toxins that target the brain during infection. Finally, the gut microbiota produces molecules that act on enteric neurons to influence gastrointestinal motility, and metabolites that stimulate the "gut-brain axis" to alter neural circuits, autonomic function, and higher-order brain function and behavior. Furthering the mechanistic and molecular understanding of how bacteria affect the nervous system may uncover potential strategies for modulating neural function and treating neurological diseases.
Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Waldiceu A Verri, and Isaac M Chiu. 1/2017. “Nociceptor Sensory Neuron-Immune Interactions in Pain and Inflammation.” Trends Immunol, 38, 1, Pp. 5-19.Abstract
Nociceptor sensory neurons protect organisms from danger by eliciting pain and driving avoidance. Pain also accompanies many types of inflammation and injury. It is increasingly clear that active crosstalk occurs between nociceptor neurons and the immune system to regulate pain, host defense, and inflammatory diseases. Immune cells at peripheral nerve terminals and within the spinal cord release mediators that modulate mechanical and thermal sensitivity. In turn, nociceptor neurons release neuropeptides and neurotransmitters from nerve terminals that regulate vascular, innate, and adaptive immune cell responses. Therefore, the dialog between nociceptor neurons and the immune system is a fundamental aspect of inflammation, both acute and chronic. A better understanding of these interactions could produce approaches to treat chronic pain and inflammatory diseases.
Isaac M Chiu, Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, and Clifford J Woolf. 6/8/2016. “Pain and infection: pathogen detection by nociceptors.” Pain, 157, 6, Pp. 1192-3. PDF
Pankaj Baral, Kimbria Mills, Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, and Isaac M Chiu. 6/8/2016. “Pain and Itch: Beneficial or Harmful to Antimicrobial Defense?” Cell Host Microbe, 19, 6, Pp. 755-9.Abstract
Pain and itch are unpleasant sensations accompanying many microbial infections. Recent studies demonstrate that pain- and itch-mediating somatosensory neurons are able to directly detect pathogens, triggering neuronal activation and subsequent regulation of immune responses. We discuss whether pain and/or itch during infection is beneficial or harmful to host antimicrobial defense.
Isaac M Chiu, Christian A Von Hehn, and Clifford J Woolf. 2012. “Neurogenic inflammation and the peripheral nervous system in host defense and immunopathology.” Nat Neurosci, 15, 8, Pp. 1063-7.Abstract
The peripheral nervous and immune systems are traditionally thought of as serving separate functions. The line between them is, however, becoming increasingly blurred by new insights into neurogenic inflammation. Nociceptor neurons possess many of the same molecular recognition pathways for danger as immune cells, and, in response to danger, the peripheral nervous system directly communicates with the immune system, forming an integrated protective mechanism. The dense innervation network of sensory and autonomic fibers in peripheral tissues and high speed of neural transduction allows rapid local and systemic neurogenic modulation of immunity. Peripheral neurons also seem to contribute to immune dysfunction in autoimmune and allergic diseases. Therefore, understanding the coordinated interaction of peripheral neurons with immune cells may advance therapeutic approaches to increase host defense and suppress immunopathology.